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kathmandu

overview

The Kathmandu Valley : (in nepali , काठमाडौं उपत्यका,  स्वनिगः, नेपाः गाः), placed in Nepal, lies at the crossroads of  remote civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130  importunate  monuments, including several expedition sites for Hindus and Buddhists. There are seven World Heritage Sites within the valley.

 

Historically, the valley and neighboring areas made up a association known as the Nepal Mandala. Until the 15th century, Bhaktapur was its capital, when two other capitals, Kathmandu and Lalitpur (Patan), were entrenched  After the annexation of the valley by the Gorkha Kingdom, and subsequent conversion of the valley as the capital of their empire, the designation of "Nepal" was   protrated to every land they conquered.

 

The Kathmandu Valley is the most  advanced and populated place in Nepal. The majority of offices and headquarters are placed  in the valley, making it the economic hub of Nepal. It is popular with tourists for its different architecture, and rich culture that add the highest number of jatras (street festivals) in Nepal. The valley itself was indicated to as "Nepal Proper" by British historians.

 

Thousands of people died and tens of thousands of buildings and structures crumpled in Kathmandu Valley in the April 2015 Nepal earthquake

 

 

Etymology

 

The city of Kathmandu is titled after a structure in Durbar Square called by the Sanskrit name Kāsṣtha mandapa "Wooden shelter". It was demolished in the 2015 earthquake. This  particular temple, also known as the Maru Sattal, was built in 1596 by King Lakshminarasimha Malla. The entire structure  comprised no iron nails or supports and was formed  entirely from wood. Legend has it that the timber used for this two-story pagoda was attained from a single tree.

 

 

History

The Kathmandu Valley may have been developed as early as 300 BCE, since the oldest known objects in the valley date to a few hundred years BCE. The earliest known dedication  is dated 185 CE. The oldest firmly dated building in the earthquake-prone valley is almost 1,992 years old. Four stupas around the city of Patan that are said to have been boosted by a Charumati, denote daughter of the Maurya emperor Ashoka, in the third century BCE, attest to the remote history present within the valley. As with the novels of the Buddha's visit, there is no evidence auxiliary Ashok's visit, but the stupas  perhaps date to that century. The Licchavis, whose earliest inscriptions date to 464, were the next rulers of the valley and had closed ties with the Gupta Empire of India. The Mallas ruled the Kathmandu Valley and the neighboring area from the 12th until the 18th century CE, when the Shah dynasty of the Gorkha Kingdom under Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the valley as he established present-day Nepal. His victory in the Battle of Kirtipurwas the beginning of his  occupation of the valley.

 

 

Newars

The Newars are the  domestic inhabitants and the  founder of the classic civilization of the valley. The Newars are Tibeto-Burman speakers. The language is today known as Nepal Bhasa.They are understood to be the  progenture of the various ethnic and racial groups that have populated and controlled the valley in the two-millennium history of the place. Scholars have also construed the Newars as a nation. They have developed a selection of labour and a seasoned urban civilization not seen elsewhere in the Himalayan foothills. They are known for their addition to art, sculpture, architecture, culture, literature, music, industry, trade, agriculture and cuisine, and left their mark on the art of Centre Asia.

 

Newa architecture subsists by the pagoda, stupa, shikhara, chaitya and other kind . The valley's brand name is the multiple-roofed pagoda which may have created in this area and advanced  to India, China, Indochina and Japan.[6][7] The most popular artisan who determined stylistic developments in China and Tibet was Araniko, a Newar who experienced to the court of Kublai Khan in the 13th century AD.[6] He is known for building the white stupa at the Miaoying Temple in Beijing. At present, people from other parts of Nepal tend to emigrate to the valley for a better life due to its high level of cultural and economic development.

 

 

 

Mythology

Conferring to Swayambhu Puran, the Kathmandu Valley was once a lake, suspected by scientists as Paleo Kathmandu Lake. The hill where theSwayambu Stupa rests had lotus plants with beautiful lotus flowers abloom. One story says that the god Manjusri cut a chasm at a place called Kashapaal (later called Chobhar) with a sword called Chandrahrasha and depleted  away the waters in order to establish a habitable land.

 

According to Gopal Banshawali, Krishna cut the gorge with his Sudarshana Chakra to let the water out. He then handed the  depleted  valley to the Gopal Vansi people, who were  pastoral  cow herders.

 

Geography

Kathmandu valley is bowl-shaped. Its centre l lower part stands at 1,425 metres (4,675 ft) above sea level. Kathmandu valley is encompassed by four mountain ranges: Shivapuri (at an elevation of 2,800 metres), Phulchowki (2,795 metres ),Nagarjun (2,825 metres) and Chandragiri (2,300 metres ). The major river flowing through the Kathmandu Valley is the Bagmati.

 

The valley is made up of the Kathmandu District, Lalitpur District and Bhaktapur District covering an area of 220 square miles (570 km2). The valley consists of the municipal areas of Kathmandu, Patan, Bhaktapur, Kirtipur and Madhyapur Thimi; the remaining area is made up of a number of village development committees. The valley is a cultural and political hub of Nepal. The Kathmandu valley was accorded the status of a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in the year 1979

 

 

Present

This valley hosts a UNESCO World Heritage Site with seven preserved locations: the centers of the three primary cities, Kathmandu Hanuman Dhoka, Patan and Bhaktapur, the two most important Buddhist stupas, Swayambhunath and Boudhanath and two famous Hindu shrines, Pashupatinath temple and Changu Narayan. Since 2003, UNESCO lists the sites as being "endangered" out of concern for the ongoing loss of authenticity and the outstanding universal value of the cultural property.

 

In the past, Tibetan Buddhist Masters including Marpa, Milarepa, Rwa Lotsava, Ras Chungpa, Dharma Swami, XIII Karmapa, XVI Karmapa and several others visited and traveled in the Kathmandu Valley. However, the largest group of Tibetans came in the 1960s. Many settled around the Swayambhunath and Boudhanath Stupas. Many other famous Lamas known throughout the world have their Buddhist monasteries and centers in the Kathmandu Valley.

 

The 1500-year history of funerary architecture in the valley provides some of the finest examples of stone architecture found in the subcontinent. A caitya is placed in almost all courtyards in cities like Patan.  Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal

 

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