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history of nepal

Your Truly " Trekking in nepal Guide " ExGuides treks , would like to give you small tips of  Nepal History

The history of Nepal has been  determined by its geography  in the Himalayas  and  its two neighbourhood modern day INDIA and CHINA. , it is now a multiethnic, multiracial, multicultural, multi religious, and multilingual country. The national and most spoken language of Nepal is Nepali.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Legendary accounts of the Kirati Period : Nepal's very first documented though still  mythological history with the Kiratas, who may have arrived from the west to the Kathmandu valley. Little is known about them, other than their adroitness as sheep agriculturist and great fondness for carrying long cutters Some section of the modern Newar population are believed to have descended from them, and a number of Newar  people stories and myths refer to social and political life in Kathmandu valley during the Kirati period.

The 1st Kirat King Kushal

The 1st kirat king Kushal laid the  base  of the Kirata dynasty after defeating the last ruler of the Abhira dynasty. When Kirats occupied the valley, they made Matatirtha their capital. The Kirat kingdom during the rule of Yalambar genealogy  to Tista in the East and Trisidi in the West. It is said Yalambar had gone to eyewitness the battle of Mahabharata between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. He was so brave and powerful that Lord Krishna to be cut him prior to the battle  expecting he might fight for the Kauravas.

The 7th Kirata King Jitedasti

 all the while  the statute of the 7th Kirat King Jitedasti, Siddh?rtha Gautama (BCE 623 – BCE 543), called Gautamat Buddha by Buddhists, was born into the Shakya tribe of Madhyadesh (now Madhesh). While Gautama's ministry eventually extended to modern India, becoming generally bracketed with that country, there are still many Nepalis who  cal  Shakya membership.

The 14th Kirata King Sthunko

All the while  the statute of the 14th Kirat King Sthunko, the Emperor Ashoka is said to have visit  to the Kathmandu Valley with his daughter, princess Charumati. as his stay in the valley, he is said to have four stupas built around Patan in the four cardinal directions and one in the centure. He is said to have arranged his daughter Charumati's marriage with a local young prince named Devapala. Prince Devapala and his consort Charumati lived at Chabahil near Pashupati area. Later Charumati had the stupas of Devapatana built after the death of her husband in his memory. Charumati later on become a nun herself and built a convent where she resided and practiced Lord Buddha's doctrine.

The 15th Kirata king Jinghri

All the while the statute of the 15th Kirata King Jinghri, another religious doctrine, Jainism, was being  missionaried by Mahavir in modern-day country called India. Bhadrabhau, a disciple of Mahavira Jaina, is said to have visit to Nepal. But Jainism did not get  as much popularity as Buddhism in Nepal.

 The 28th Kirat King Paruka

All the while  the statute of the 28th Kirata King Paruka, the Sombanshi ruler attacked his regime many times from the west. Although he successfully repelled their attacks, he was forced to move to Shankhamul from Gokarna. He had a royal palace called "Patuka" built there for him. The 'Patuka' palace can no longer be seen, except its ruins in the form of a mound. Patuka changed Shankhamul into a beautiful town.

There is a faith  diffused in the Newar town of Patan that a mound  of soil located in the middle of the town and called 'Patuka Don' by the locals is what  residues of the palace. However, consecutive archaeological projects have not  published  declaration to support this.

The 29th Kirat King Gasti (Gusti) Rai

The last King of the Kirat dynasty was Gasti (Gusti) Rai, a weak ruler, who is said to have been overcome by the Somavanshi ruler Nimisha. This completed the powerful Kirata dynasty that had lasted for about 1225 years. After their  breakdown, the Kiratas moved to the Eastern hills of Nepal and determined  down, divided into small division. Their settlements were divided into three regions, i.e., 'Wallokirat' that lay to the East of the Kathmandu Valley, 'Majkirat' or Central Kirat region and 'Pallokirat' that lay to the far East of the Kathmandu valley . These regions are still thickly populated by Kiratas Sunuwar, Rai and Limbu, Yakkha etc. The locality of Chyasal on the north-eastern fringe  of Patan in Kathmandu valley is associated with the myth of the assassination of the Kirata ruling class before the rest allegedly escaped to the eastern regions. The word 'chyasa' means 'eight hundred' in Nepalbhasa and the story as elaborated in the 'Kwabaha Vamshavali', a late medieval Nepalese text, describes the killing of eight hundred members of the ruling class.

 Thakuri Dynasty

 

Rule of the Thakuri kings

The Thakuri Dynasty was a Rajput Dynasty. After Aramudi, who is written in the Kashmirian prehistory the Rajatarangini of Kalhana (1150 CE), many Thakuri kings statute over parts of the country up to the middle of the 12th century CE. Raghava Deva is said to have founded a ruling dynasty in 879 CE, when the Lichhavi rule came to an end. To  memorialize this important  episode Raghu Deva started the 'Nepal Era' which began on 20 October, 879 CE. After Amshuvarma, who ruled from 605 CE onward, the Thakuris had  vanished power and they could regain it only in 869 AD.

Gunakam Deva

After the death of King Raghava Dev, many Thakuri kings ruled Southern Nepal up to the middle of the 12th century CE. During that period, Gunakama Deva was one of the famous kings. He ruled from 949 to 994 CE. During his rule, a big wooden house was built out of one single tree which was called 'Kasthamandapa', from which the name of the capital, 'Kathmandu', is derived. Gunakama Deva founded a town called Kantipur, the modern Kathmandu.

Successors of Gunakama Dev

Bhola Deva succeeded Gunakama Deva. The next ruler was Laksmikama Deva who ruled from 1024 to 1040 CE. He built Laksmi Vihara and introduced the custom of worshipping a virgin girl as 'Kumari'. Then, Vijayakama Deva, the son of Laksmikama, became the Nepalese king. Vijaykama Deva was the last ruler of this dynasty. He introduced the worship of the "Naga" and "Vasuki". After his death, the Thakuri clan of Nuwakot occupied the throne of Nepal.

Nuwakot Thakuri Kings

Bhaskara Deva, a Thakuri form Nuwakot, succeeded Vijayakama Deva and established Nuwakot-Thakuri rule. He is said to have built Navabahal and Hemavarna Vihara. After Bhaskara Deva, four kings of this line ruled over the country. They were Bala Deva, Padma Deva, Nagarjuna Deva and Shankara Deva.Shankara Deva (1067–1080 CE) was the most illustrious ruler of this dynasty. He established the image of 'Shantesvara Mahadeva' and 'Manohara Bhagavati'. The custom of pasting the pictures of Nagas and Vasuki on the doors of houses on the day of Nagapanchami was introduced by him. During his time, the Buddhists wreaked vengeance on the Hindu Brahmins (especially the followers of Shaivism) for the harm they had received earlier from Shankaracharya. Shankara Deva tried to pacify the Brahmins harassed by the Buddhists.

Suryavansi (the Solar Dynasty)

Bama Deva, a  progeniture of Amshuvarma, defeated Shankar Deva in 1080 CE. He  abolished the Nuwakot-Thankuris with the help of nobles and refreshed the old Solar regime rule in Nepal for the second time. Harsha Deva, the successor of Bama Deva was a  spent ruler. There was no unity among the nobles and they asserted themselves in their respective spheres of influence. Taking that good fortune Nanya Deva, a Karnataka king, attacked Nepal from Simraungar. In reply Army of Nepal defended, won the battle and successfully  secured Nepal from a foreign invasion.

Shivadeva III

After Harsha Deva, Shivadeva the third ruled from 1099 to 1126 CE. He was a brave and powerful king. He founded the town of Kirtipur and roofed the temple of Pashupatinath with gold. He introduced twenty-five paisa coins. He also constructed wells, canals and tanks at different places.

After Sivadeva III, Mahendra Deva, Mana Deva, Narendra Deva II, Ananda Deva, Rudra Deva, Amrita Deva, Ratna Deva II, Somesvara Deva, Gunakama Deva II, Lakmikama Deva III and Vijayakama Deva II ruled Nepal in quick succession. Historians differ about the rule of several kings and their respective times. After the fall of the Thakuri dynasty, a new dynasty was founded by Arideva or Ari Malla, popularly known as the 'Malla Dynasty'

 Malla Dynasty

 A Malla rule started with Ari Malla in the 12th century. Over the next two centuries, his kingdom  develop widely, into much of South Asia and western Tibet, before disintegrating into small principalities, which later became known as the Baise.Jayasthiti Malla, with whom commences the later Malla dynasty of the Kathmandu Valley, began to reign at the end of the 18th century. King Prithvi Narayan Shah unified Kathmandu at the day of Indra Jatra (festival). Malla Dynasty was the Longest ruling dynasty, ruling from the 12th century to the 18th century (about 600 years of ruling period). This era in the Valley is eminent for the various social and economic reforms such as the 'Sanskritization' of the Valley people, new methods of land measurement and allocation etc. In this Era, new Art and Architecture was introduced. The monuments in Kathmandu Valley which are listed by UNESCO these days were built during Malla rule. In the 14th century, before Kathmandu was divided into 3 princely states, Araniko went to China on the request of Abhaya Malla for representing the skill of art and architecture, and he introduced Pagoda Style of architecture to China and subsequently, whole Asia. Yaksha Malla, the grandson of Jayasthiti Malla, ruled the Kathmandu Valley until almost the end of the 15th century.

 Kingdom of Nepal

Gorkha rule

The old king's palace on a hill in Gorkha

After decades of rivalry between the medieval kingdoms, modern Nepal was reconvene in the latter half of the 18th century, whenPrithvi Narayan Shah, the ruler of the small principality of Gorkha, formed a unified country from a number of independent hill states.Prithvi Narayan Shah dedicated himself at an early age to the conquest of the Kathmandu Valley and the creation of a single state, which he achieved in 1768.The country was frequently called the Gorkha Kingdom. It is a  misapprehension that the Gorkhali took their name from the Gorkha region of Nepal; actually, the region was given its name after the Gorkhali had established their control of these areas.After Shah's death, the Shah dynasty began to expand their kingdom into much of South Asia. Between 1788 and 1791, during theSino-Nepalese War, Nepal invaded Tibet and robbed Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse. Alarmed, the Qianlong Emperor of the Chinese Qing Dynasty appointed Fuk'anggan commander-in-chief of the Tibetan campaign; Fuk'anggan defeated the Gorkhali army and halted their northward expansion.

Rana rule

Jung Bahadur was the first ruler from this dynasty. Rana rulers were titled "Shri Teen" and "Maharaja", whereas Shah kings were "Shri Panch" and "Maharajdiraj". Both the Rana dynasty and Shah dynasty are Rajput caste in the Hindu tradition. Jung Bahadur codified laws and  renovate the state's bureaucracy. In the coup d'état of 1885 the nephews of Jung Bahadur and Ranodip Singh (the Shumshers J.B., S.J.B. or Satra (17) Family) murdered Ranodip Singh and the sons of Jung Bahadur, stole the name of Jung Bahadur and took control of Nepal.[10] [11]Nine Rana rulers took the hereditary office of Prime Minister. All were styled (self proclaimed) Maharaja of Lambjang and Kaski.

 Shah Dynasty, reunification of Nepal

Prithvi Narayan Shah (c. 1779–1775), with whom we move into the modern period of Nepal's history, was the ninth generation   progeny of Dravya Shah (1559–1570), the founder of the ruling house of Gorkha. Prithvi Narayan Shah succeeded his father King Nara Bhupal Shah to the throne of Gorkha in 1743 CE. King Prithvi Narayan Shah was quite aware of the political situation of the Valley kingdoms as well as of the Baise and Chaubise principalities. He foresaw the need for reunifying the small principalities as an urgent situation  for survival in the future and set himself to the task accordingly.

Nepalese Civil War

In February 1996, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) started a bid to replace the parliamentary monarchy with a people's new  autonomous  government , through a Maoist revolutionary strategy known as the people's war, which led to the Nepalese Civil War. Led by Dr. Baburam Bhattarai and Pushpa Kamal Dahal (also known as "Prachanda"), the insurgency began in five districts in Nepal: Rolpa, Rukum, Jajarkot, Gorkha, and Sindhuli. The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) established a provisional "people's government" at the district level in several locations.On June 1, 2001, Prince Dipendra went on a shooting-spree, assassinating 9 members of the royal family, in addition to King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya, before shooting himself. Due to his survival he  impermanently became king before dying of his wounds, after which Prince Gyanendra (Birendra's brother  rooted  the throne, according to tradition. Meanwhile, the rebellion heighten and in October 2002 the king temporarily  demote  the government and took complete control of it. A week later he reappointed another government, but the country was still very  changeable. In the face of unstable governments and a siege on the Kathmandu Valley in August 2004, popular support for the monarchy started  to wane. On February 1, 2005, Gyanendra dismissed the entire government and assumed full executive powers, declaring a "state of emergency" to quash the  destruction .Politicians were placed under house arrest, phone and internet lines were cut, and freedom of the press was  acutely curtailed.

 


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